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Types and Treatments Gallery

The image gallery contains thumbnails and descriptions of a variety Facility Types and Select Treatments.  

The list of treatments provided here is not meant to be exhaustive. Similarly, the information provided on each of the individual treatments is not intended to be final and definitive.

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Facility Types

Implementing a network of Complete Streets begins with an understanding of the variety of facility types and functions associated with users beyond automobile drivers. Choosing the appropriate facility type is important to ensure safety, balance the needs of all roadway users, assure the comfort and convenience of bicyclists and pedestrians of the widest possible range of abilities, to increase the number of people choosing these modes, and to maximize the impact of the investments made by communities from increasingly limited resources and to ensure the cost-effectiveness of infrastructure.

Click below for a visual matrix of Facility Types.  A complete PDF version of this section can be found here.

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Bicycle Facilities

There are many types of bicycle facilities. The land use context, motor vehicle speed, and traffic volumes should be considered when selecting appropriate treatments. As a general rule, separation between vehicles and bicycles should increase as vehicle speed and volume increase, though on-street bicycle facilities can themselves function as a traffic calming measure.  ROW constraints may limit bicycle facility selection, especially in retrofit projects, and may require tradeoffs in more constricted areas.  An excellent source for more information on bicycle facility types is NACTO's Urban Bikeway Design Guide, which is available to download for free at http://nacto.org/cities-for-cycling/design-guide/.  In addition, AASHTO's detailed Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 4th Edition (2012) can be purchased at https://bookstore.transportation.org/item_details.aspx?ID=1943.

Basic Bike Facilities

Signed Routes

Shared Lanes


Marked Shared Lanes

Wide Curb Lanes

Bike Lanes

Buffered Bike Lanes

Cycle Tracks

Paved Shoulders

Shared Use Paths



Special-Purpose Bike Lanes

Floating Bike Lanes
Advisory Bike Lanes

Contraflow Bike Lanes

Left-side bike lanes

Colored pavement bike lanes

Double bike lanes

Bike-bus lanes


Intersection Considerations

Mixing Zones

Through-Intersection Bike Lane Markings

Combined Bike Lane/Turn Lanes

Bike Boxes

Refuge Islands


Comprehensive Roadway Treatments

Bike Boulevards and Neighborhood Greenways

Urban Greenways


Basic Transit Facilities

Transit systems make use of streets and public rights-of-way both to operate vehicles (buses, trolleys, streetcars, trains, etc.) and to provide access for transit users to and from these vehicles. While this toolkit cannot cover all aspects and elements of transit design, operations, and accessibility, we will offer some basic information on several important facilities or service types that can enhance the function and experience of transit on different types of corridors.

More information on the connection between roadway planning and design and transit can be found in Pace Suburban Bus Transit Supportive Guidelines.

Transit Shelters

Dedicated Bus Lanes

Protected Bus Lanes

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)

Street Cars

High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes

Green Lanes

Rail Transit


Pedestrian Facilities

Sidewalks and crosswalks are the most basic of pedestrian facilities. Selection of pedestrian facilities should be based on the surrounding land use context and traffic conditions. Please see the "Select Treatments" section of this toolkit for more detailed discussion of crossing treatments.

Sidewalk Zone System


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Select Treatments

For most treatments, numerous, detailed studies on their application, effectiveness, designs, and implementation exist. Practitioners should consult such materials when developing project scopes and designs. We provide links to some of the most important resources—and, when applicable, to regulatory authority—for the individual treatments.

Major additional resources for design standards and guidance, related to safety, accessibility, and mobility for non-motorized and multimodal travel, can be found in the additional resources section.

Click below for a visual matrix of Select Treatments.  A complete PDF version of this section can be found here.

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Intersection and crossing locations


Pedestrian Countdown Signals

Curb Ramps, Landings, and Detectable Warning Tiles

High-visibility Crosswalks

Curb Extensions

Raised Center Median / Pedestrian Refuge Island

Raised 'Pork Chop' Pedestrian Refuge Island / Right-turn Slip Lane

Raised Crosswalks and Intersections

Pedestrian Crossing Beacons - Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon (HAWK)

Pedestrian Crossing Beacons - Rectangular Rapid Flashing Beacon

Pedestrian Crossing Beacons - Overhead Flashing Beacon

High-visibility Signage | In-street Stop / Yield Signs

High-visbility Signage | Warning Signs

Leading Pedestrian Interval / Turn Restrictions

Lighting Improvements

Exclusive, All-ways Pedestrian Crossing

Grade-separated Crossing

Reduced Curb Radii

Modern Roundabout

Pedestrian- and Bicycle-friendly interchanges


Traffic Calming and Speed Management

The following section presents design treatments focused on traffic calming or speed management. While treatments vary in terms of the context in which they are most effective and the specific conditions or behaviors that they are intended to address, they all have the overarching goal of controlling or limiting motor vehicle speed and the points of conflict between vehicles and other road users.

Speed Humps and Tables

Mini Circles (Neighborhood Traffic Circles)


Chicanes and Serpentine Design

Diverters and Partial Street Closures

Gateways / Transition Zones


Pavement Treatments

Speed Display Signs

Shared Streets, Plazas, and Pedestrian Malls


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