A skilled workforce is a critical component of regional economic growth. Many jobs that once required only a high school degree now require additional training or a postsecondary education. Ensuring that Chicago's workforce has access to these opportunities will prepare the region to compete in the global economy.
Regional Economic Indicators: Workforce
The proportion of residents in the Chicago region and peer metropolitan areas who are age 25 and older holding high school, associate, bachelor, and advanced degrees.
Why it matters
With a growing number of jobs nationwide and in the region requiring postsecondary education, higher levels of educational attainment indicate a skilled workforce and contribute to regional economic prosperity. The proportion of the Chicago region’s residents holding postsecondary degrees lags behind Boston and Washington, D.C., and exceeds the rate in Los Angeles.
Higher levels of educational attainment create benefits for both individuals and regional economies. As residents receive additional postsecondary education, they can generally expect increased median earnings and a decreased likelihood of joblessness. On a regional scale, these trends translate to lower unemployment rates and greater economic output. Nearly half of Chicago residents (45.7 percent) have an Associate degree or higher, including more than 2.2 million residents with a Bachelor degree or higher.
Developing and maintaining an educated workforce is a critical component of business growth and retention. A 2012 IBM survey of CEOs, for example, found that, when asked about their business' key source of economic value, CEOs most frequently cited human capital -- more so than customer relationships, technology, innovation, or research and development. Regions with a skilled workforce have a competitive advantage in a globalized economy largely shaped by innovations in transportation and communication technology.
Educational attainment among metropolitan areas
As employment in the U.S. has transitioned from agriculture and manufacturing toward service sector occupations and an increasingly knowledge-based economy, demand for workers with a postsecondary education and training has increased. Although manufacturing output is near an all-time high, the share of employees working in manufacturing has steadily declined relative to those in service sector industries, such as health care, finance, business services, and education. For instance, approximately 60 percent of the nation's employment during the 1940s was in the service sector. Today, the proportion has risen to over 80 percent.
Postsecondary degree attainment rates in the Chicago region and most other large metropolitan areas exceed national averages. However, the region finds itself near the middle among peer metropolitan areas at each level of degree attainment. Associate and bachelor degree attainment rates among the Chicago region and its peers are relatively similar; advanced degree attainment rates exhibit greater variability.
Approximately 15.0 percent of the Chicago region's population age 25 and older holds an advanced degree, placing it behind Washington, D.C. (25.0), Boston (21.1), and New York (16.3). Advanced degree holders play an important role in regional economies because they have the highest potential to be job creators, either directly by starting a new company or indirectly by increasing demand for goods and services in the local economy.
Trends in job growth by educational attainment
Since 2001, jobs requiring an associate degree or higher in the Chicago region have grown more than jobs requiring less than an associate degree. The following chart illustrates this trend and highlights the significant effect that the most recent recession had on jobs with lower postsecondary education requirements.
Between 2006-10, the region lost more than 300,000 jobs (9.8 percent) in occupations requiring less than an associate degree. Although the labor market has largely recovered from the 2007-09 recession, employment growth has been uneven and jobs requiring less than an associate degree remain 2.4 percent below their 2001 levels. In comparison, occupations requiring a bachelor degree in particular have shown steady growth since the end of the recession, gaining more than 14.1 percent on their 2010 lows. Among advanced degree holders, the recession slowed employment growth, but did not lead to significant job losses as it did at other educational levels. Such trends reflect long-term patterns of job polarization in the region as technological advancements have complemented higher-skill occupations like those in computer programming, business services, and healthcare.
About the data
Metropolitan educational attainment is tracked by estimating the proportion of a region’s population age 25 and older holding a high school, associate, bachelor, or advanced degree. A key missing component of this data is information on certifications utilized in manufacturing, STEM occupations, and other growing areas of the economy. While most individuals pursue a traditional associate or bachelor degree, educational institutions increasingly offer postsecondary certifications in specific fields. While these certifications do not equate to an accredited degree, they can be a significant asset for jobseekers. The lack of available data for these programs highlights the limitation of tracking educational attainment using traditional degree measurements.
For estimates of job growth at different levels of post-secondary education and training, CMAP analysis uses education category assignments determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) based on survey data for the educational attainment rates of workers in each occupation. The BLS has adjusted these assignments intermittently since 2007. CMAP analysis uses current education category assignments and holds them constant for all previous years. Holding the education category assignments constant allows the analysis to focus on the types of occupations that gained or lost jobs since 2001 rather than on changes to the typical education requirements for individual occupations. For many occupations, there may be more than one way to pursue entry-level jobs. The education category assignments reflect the highest level of education BLS survey respondents have attained -- not necessarily the level of education required for the occupation.
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The estimated number of full- and part-time jobs in the seven-county CMAP region and peer metropolitan areas.
Why it matters
Growing job counts indicate that businesses are hiring and that the region’s economy is growing. Metropolitan Chicago has experienced steady job growth since the 2007-09 recession. Yet the region’s job growth has consistently lagged behind those of peer metropolitan areas since 2001 with an annualized rate one-third of the national average.
Regional employment trends
Total job counts in metropolitan areas tend to follow national economic trends. During the 2001 recession, employment in the Chicago, New York, Los Angeles, and Boston regions declined slightly before experiencing moderate growth through 2007. The 2007-09 recession reversed much of this growth for the Chicago region and its peers.
Effects of the most recent recession were especially severe in the Chicago and Los Angeles regions, which lost 7.2 percent and 8.1 percent of their jobs, respectively. Metropolitan regions nationwide have seen several consecutive years of growth in total job counts. Recovery has varied widely among metropolitan regions. The Chicago region only regained its 2001 total jobs count in 2014, as peer regions met or exceeded their 2007 pre-recession peaks.
Today, the number of jobs in the region continues to increase. Yet, the available data do not indicate the quality or average pay of jobs created. Total job counts can increase from the creation of part-time or low-wage jobs, as well as the creation of full-time or well-paying jobs. Thus, measuring total jobs provides a high-level perspective on the health of employment in the region.
About the data
Total jobs data are reported by Economic Modeling Specialists International (Emsi 2018.3) and are primarily based on data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, and EMSI proprietary sources. The data report the sum of full- and part-time positions. Data for metropolitan Chicago includes only the seven counties of northeastern Illinois; all other regions reflect U.S. Census Bureau metropolitan statistical areas.
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The proportion of working-age residents (20 to 64 years old) who are currently employed or looking for work.
Why it matters
A higher level of workforce participation is generally seen as a positive indicator of regional economic opportunity. Workforce participation is a helpful measure for contextualizing unemployment rates. Rates tend to increase during periods of economic growth as more individuals choose to work. Conversely, participation rates can decline during economic downturns as jobseekers become discouraged by poor employment prospects and choose to stop looking for work.
National and regional trends in workforce participation
The Chicago region’s workforce participation remained at approximately 80.5 percent in 2017. This rate exceeds those of Los Angeles and New York and is lower than rates in Washington, D.C., and Boston. The 2007-09 recession contributed to an overall decline in the national workforce participation rate, although the rate saw a continued rise from a recent low of 76.8 percent in 2015 to 77.4 percent in 2017.
About the data
Workforce participation statistics come with many caveats. Decreasing participation is generally attributed to an increasing number of discouraged workers. When workers cannot find jobs and suspend their search, the U.S. Census Bureau no longer considers them to be in the workforce, resulting in a decline in participation rates. However, lower workforce participation rates can also be attributed to positive factors. Many people choose to forego work to pursue postsecondary education, retire early, provide family care, or because they have sufficient economic stability at home. In general, higher rates of workforce participation are beneficial for the regional economy and indicate a larger labor force.
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